Tsushima Maru PDF Print E-mail

Tsushima Maru Sinking

Off the coast of Akusekijima
22 August 1944

tsushima-maru

Not until more than twenty years after the end of the war did the crew of Bowfin learn that the unmarked, unlighted passenger-cargo vessel, Tsushima Maru, which Bowfin sank off the coast of Akusekijima on 22 August 1944, was loaded with 826 children. They, along with some of their school teachers and a few of their parents, were being transported from Okinawa to the mainland of Japan to escape the anticipated invasion of the Ryukyu Islands. Of those children, 767 were lost; only 59 were saved.

Survivors of the sinking were not allowed to speak of the incident under threats of extreme punishment.

The Convoy

convoy


Ships sailing in Convoy Namo 103 with Tsushima Maru, on 22 August 1944:

Kazuura Maru (listed as Waura Maru in some sources): 6,804 tons. May later have been declared and used as a hospital ship by the Japanese government.

Gyoukuu (source is unsure of transliteration) Maru. (Further information presently unavailable, although the ship may possibly be the 6,854 ton cargo vessel Gyoku Maru, which was sunk by USS Thresher (SS-200), at 35-05N, 124-24E on 18 September 1944.)

IJNS Hasu (destroyer, Momi or Kuri Class); Badly damaged 16 January 1945 at Hong Kong by aircraft of TF 38; surrendered September 1945 at Tsingtao and broken up 1946 at Sasebo. (from: Warships of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1869-1945, pages 137-138.)

IJNS Uji (gunboat); Survived the war; surrendered August 1945 and transferred to China as Chang Chi; taken over by Communists in 1949 and re-armed by 1955. (from: Warships of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1869-1945, pp. 118-119.)

After the War
sayonaraokinawa
The sinking has been the subject of many articles and books published in Japan, as well as a good number of documentary broadcasts and even an animated feature film. Memorial ceremonies are held at sea at the approximate location of the sinking, and there are monuments in Naha City, Okinawa, and on Akuseki Island for those lost at sea.

Recent Findings

An investigation team from the Japan Marine Science & Technology Center (JAMSTEC) found the sunken ship on 12 December 1997, in waters 10 kilometers northwest of Akuseki Island, Kagoshima Prefecture. The ship was positively identified by Dolphin 3K deep sea detection equipment, which video taped the portions of the sunken vessel and found the ship's name painted on her hull.

tsushimahull

Following is a translation of a Waka Poem by His Majesty the Emperor of Japan, for his Year-end Presentation in 1997 (Ninth Year of Heisei):

The sighting of wreck of the Tsushima-Maru

Foundered, with lives
Of the young evacuees
Held in her embrace,
The ship has been discovered
Far down in the ocean depths.

From: http://www.kunaicho.go.jp/gyosei/5syu3syuh09-01.html


Note of Interest

The periscope photograph shown below has appeared in publications both in the U.S. and Japan, misidentifying the vessel as Tsushima Maru. Because the attack occurred at night, between 2200 and 2230 (10:00 pm. and 10:30 p.m.), and the ship (confirmed by all accounts) sank in less than 15 minutes, this photo could not possibly be of Tsushima Maru. Furthermore, Bowfin did not take any photographs of this attack, and the vessel shown appears to be much smaller and of a different type than the 6,754 ton, 136 meter long passenger-cargo ship, Tsushima Maru.

nottsushima

Sources


Report of War Patrol Number Six, USS Bowfin (SS-287), pages 13 through 19, for 22 August 1944.
Information on Convoy Namo 103 from the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare

Books:

Hoyt, Edwin P., Bowfin, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1983 (pages 144-150)
Jentschura, Hansgeorg; Jung, Dieter; and Mickel, Peter, Warships of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1869-1945, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, MD, 1986.

Shinzato Seitoku, Ah, Gakudo Sokai Sen Tsushima Maru (Ah, School Child Evacuation Ship Tsushima Maru), Tsushima Maru Victim Bereaved Family Association, Naha, Okinawa, 1978 (in Japanese).

Articles:

From Sea Technology: Tsuchiya, Toshio, "Acoustic Instruments in Deep Water Search for a Sunken Ship," Japan Marine Science & Technology Center (JAMSTEC), Tokyo, Japan
http://www.seabeam.com/sbp_tech.htm


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Secrets of the Sub

The Very First Sub Ever

The First Submarine Ever

There were many countries around the world developing submarines in the 17th and 18th century both for wartime use and for commercial purposes. In the United States, we say the Turtle, developed by a Yale University professor, David Bushnell, was our first submarine. Designed to deliver an underwater mine with a timed fuse, it's original purpose was to break the blockade of the British Navy in New York harbor in 1776, during the War of Independence. Almost a hundred later the Confederate States Ship Hunley with a crew of nine men braved the waters of Charleston, South Carolina harbor to attack and sink the Union Ship USS Housitanic. The weapon used was a mine mounted on a spar jutting from the bow of the submarine. Again, the purpose was to break the blockade of a harbor but within 40 years, the United States started the submarine explosion with the Simon Lake, SS-1, in 1900 , designed as a scouting ship for America's emerging battle fleets. In less than 20 years, the first world war would see the island nation of Great Brritain brought to her knees by German commerce raiding submarines and submarines , large and small being developed by many nations.